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When J. F. Blumenbach, founder of racial science, divided humanity up into five unequal varieties in 1775, at the apex of his human pyramid stood the Caucasian. His concept of the Caucasian was based on one skull in his collection, of a woman from the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, whose skull he admired with unusual fervor. This photograph of a Caucasian woman is part of the Kunstkamera Museum ethnographic collection in St. Petersburg, Russia. Ironically, among Russians, natives of the Caucasus are often derided as gangsters or thieves, not unlike the ways that Italians have been characterized in the United States. In Russia a term translated as 'European' is used to describe "white" people. Never Caucasian.

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