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Cesare Lombroso, the founder of Criminal Anthropology, believed that the "criminal type" could be identified by specific physiological characteristics, "stigmata of degeneration." In addition to outer physical traits, he contended that the "criminal brain" was also readily identifiable. This 1899 police photograph from Buenos Aires, documents one of the countless specimens that were exhibited in many parts of the world to communicate this idea as an objective truth.

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