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Bust of the German Physician J. G. Spurzheim who, along with his teacher J. F. Gall, were the founders of phrenology. Spurzheim's lectures in the United States in 1832 caused a sensation and, even though he died three months only after his arrival, his influence led to an enduring fascination with phrenology as the basis of American racial science (used to justify "Indian Removal" and slavery during the Jacksonian period and after) and led to phrenology becoming a popular phenomenon and common approach to "self-improvement" among the white middle class.